He ordered the first ever census in Burmese history in 1635, which showed that the kingdom had about two million people. The 2008 Burmese constitutional referendum was held on 10 May and promised a "discipline-flourishing democracy" for the country in the future. In Rangoon workers were arrested at the Insein railway yard, and troops opened fire on workers at the Thamaing textile mill and Simmalaik dockyard. [36], There were informal contacts between the AFO and the Allies in 1944 and 1945 through the British organisation Force 136. Myanmar has long denied carrying out genocide and says it is carrying out its own investigations into the events of 2017. Pagan's rule of central Burma came to an end ten years later in 1297 when it was toppled by the Myinsaing Kingdom of Shan rulers. [36] Marxist literature as well as tracts from the Sinn Féin movement in Ireland had been widely circulated and read among political activists. See also the list of Burmese leaders. (Maha Yazawin Vol. Konbaung kings extended administrative reforms first begun in the Restored Taungoo Dynasty period (1599–1752), and achieved unprecedented levels of internal control and external expansion. Myanmar has a long and complex history. It is said that the Bagan dynasty was founded under King Anawrahta in the middle of the 11th century. Among them was the NUF leader Aung Than, older brother of Aung San. It was reorganised as the Burma Defence Army (BDA) under the Japanese but still headed by Aung San. Due to the inexperience of its last ruler, the powerful kingdom was conquered by the upstart Taungoo dynasty in 1539. The governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar sign an agreement to repatriate refugees, and the camps are closed to new arrivals in the spring. Between the 1st century BCE and the 9th century CE they created city-states there. This public action follows a long term unofficial policy of moving critical military and government infrastructure away from Yangon to avoid a repetition of the events of 1988. [36], The situation however became very unstable in parliament, with U Nu surviving a no-confidence vote only with the support of the opposition National United Front (NUF), believed to have 'crypto-communists' amongst them. 1044 Anawrahta becomes king of Pagan. Emirates Terminal 3 opens at DXB ... History Timeline; About us. The fourth, Bo Setkya, who had gone underground after the 1962 coup, died in Bangkok shortly before U Nu arrived. Dinyar Godrej / New Internationalist . c 100 AD A people called the Pyu settle in northern Burma. Siam captures the entire Tenasserim coast to Martaban. More importantly, the new dynasty proceeded to create a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into the 19th century. Win Myint replaced him in 2018. The Confederation's rule of Upper Burma, though lasted until 1555, was marred by internal fighting between Mohnyin and Thibaw houses. The AFO was later renamed the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL). [36] In fact, in March 1989, the CPB leadership was overthrown by a rebellion by the Kokang and Wa troops that it had come to depend on after losing its former strongholds in central Burma and re-establishing bases in the northeast in the late 1960s; the Communist leaders were soon forced into exile across the Chinese border. Myanmar History Timeline: follow us at: Home; Introduction; Timeline; More Information of Timeline; 5 thought Pieces ; 1930s - Germany, Japan, and Italy began building new empires; September 1, 1939 - WWII began; 1941 - The USA joined them; December 11, 1941 - Japanese army invaded Burma. 'National Schools' sprang up across the country in protest against the colonial education system, and the strike came to be commemorated as 'National Day'. [36] Army hardliners now saw the 'threat' of the CPB coming to an agreement with U Nu through the NUF, and in the end U Nu 'invited' Army Chief of Staff General Ne Win to take over the country. The Conflict in Myanmar is a series of primarily ethnic conflicts within Myanmar that began shortly after the country, then known as Burma, became independent from the United Kingdom in 1948. A TIMELINE OF THE HISTORY OF MYANMAR. The country's Independent Commission of … The new parliament convened on 1 February 2016 and, on 15 March 2016, Htin Kyaw was elected as the first non-military president of the country since the Military coup of 1962. After the opening of the Suez Canal, the demand for Burmese rice grew and vast tracts of land were opened up for cultivation. 2008. Burma accepted foreign assistance in rebuilding the country in these early years, but continued American support for the Chinese Nationalist military presence in Burma finally resulted in the country rejecting most foreign aid, refusing to join the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), and supporting the Bandung Conference of 1955. Precambrian time: Pondaung Man, the earliest primates known today, resided in Pondaung, northern Myanmar. The Muhammadan Period, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7543347.stm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Myanmar&oldid=995224391, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with dead external links from October 2012, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Burmese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with disputed statements from April 2017, Articles needing additional references from December 2011, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2008, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Until the founding of the Mrauk-U Kingdom in 1429, Arakan was often caught between bigger neighbours, and found itself a battlefield during the Forty Years' War between Ava and Pegu. The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. Furthermore the soil in Myanmar is fertile. The World Food Programme reported that, "Some villages have been almost totally eradicated and vast rice-growing areas are wiped out. Bronze-decorated coffins and burial sites filled with earthenware remains have been excavated. By Tim Lambert. Taungoo had expanded its authority up to Pagan by 1544 but failed to conquer Arakan in 1545–47 and Siam in 1547–49. CHRONOLOGY - Myanmar's troubled political history. It effectively controlled only Pegu and was crushed by Taungoo in 1552. This all changed in 2010, when Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest, ushering a new dawn in Myanmar’s history. [23], The kingdom then went to war with the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which had occupied up the Tanintharyi coast to Mottama during the Burmese civil war (1740–1757), and had provided shelter to the Mon refugees. The military responded by firing into the crowds, alleging Communist infiltration. In Archaeology in Southeast Asia, from Homo Erectus to the living traditions: choice of papers from the 11th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, 25–29 September 2006, Bougon, France, Michael Clodfelter. After decades of war, the two countries essentially exchanged Tanintharyi (to Burma) and Lan Na (to Siam). A people called the Mon lived in the estuaries of the rivers Sittang and Saliveen. In November 2005, the military junta started moving the government away from Yangon to an unnamed location near Kyatpyay just outside Pyinmana, to a newly designated capital city. Money economy continued to gain ground. To read about the background to these events, see History of Burma. A brief history of Laos At the time, independent sources reported, through pictures and accounts, 30 to 40 monks and 50 to 70 civilians killed as well as 200 beaten. Located on the banks of the Ayeyarwady River, part of castle was lost due to erosion, but in the past the castle walls surrounded the palace. Rance calmed the situation by meeting with Aung San and convincing him to join the Governor's Executive Council along with other members of the AFPFL. [55] It is estimated that more than 130,000 people died or went missing and damage totalled 10 billion US dollars; it was the worst natural disaster in Burmese history. [46] Burma's admittance to Least Developed Country status by the UN the following December highlighted its economic bankruptcy. U Nu, after his release from prison in October 1966, had left Burma in April 1969, and formed the Parliamentary Democracy Party (PDP) the following August in Bangkok, Thailand with the former Thirty Comrades, Bo Let Ya, co-founder of the CPB and former Minister of Defence and deputy prime minister, Bo Yan Naing, and U Thwin, ex-BIA and former Minister of Trade. The wealthy donated tax-free land to religious authorities. Political Map of Burma (Myanmar) in 1530 CE at Tabinshwehti's accession. FRONTLINE/WORLD . [citation needed] While the Burmese economy grew, most of the power and wealth remained in the hands of several British firms, Anglo-Burmese people, and migrants from India. [36], Triggered by brutal police repression of student-led protests causing the death of over a hundred students and civilians in March and June 1988, widespread protests and demonstrations broke out on 8 August throughout the country. 1885-86 - Burma … [36] The PDP launched an armed rebellion across the Thai border from 1972 till 1978 when Bo Let Ya was killed in an attack by the Karen National Union (KNU). Colonial policies encouraged migrant labor in order to increase rice cultivation and profits. In 1740, the Mon in Lower Burma began a rebellion, and founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom, and by 1745 controlled much of Lower Burma. In a White House statement President Bush said: "Monks have been beaten and killed ... Thousands of pro-democracy protesters have been arrested". Negotiations then began with the British over the disarming of the AFO and the participation of its troops in a post-war Burma Army. REUTERS - Myanmar's military government will hold a multi-party election on Nov. 7, its first in two decades in a country that has not seen democracy for 48 years. In 1989 the country’s official English name, which it had held since 1885, was changed from the Union of Burma to the Union of Myanmar; in the Burmese … The Chinese records also report that the Pyu knew how to make astronomical calculations, and that many Pyu boys entered the monastic life at seven to the age of 20. The Bagan dynasty, the first dynasty in the history of Myanmar, flourished from the 11th to 13 centuries and built the foundation of Myanmar culture. Shortly after, rebellion broke out in the Arakan led by the veteran monk U Seinda, and it began to spread to other districts. [1], About 1500 BCE, people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice, and domesticating chickens and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so. [36], In September 1987, Burma's de facto ruler U Ne Win suddenly cancelled certain currency notes, which caused a great down-turn in the economy. The kingdom was toppled by Taungoo forces in 1555. 200. Prome, Yamethin and Mohnyin break away (to 1490), Burmese and Siamese commands agree to a truce, Bayinnaung captures Ava, and annexes Upper Burma, Bayinnaung captures farther Shan States (Kengtung and Chinese Shan states), Fall of First Toungoo Empire after Pegu sacked by the Arakanese and Toungoo (city) forces. Founding of the Fourth Myanmar Union, Union of Burma, after independence on 4th January from British. YANGON (Reuters) - Myanmar goes to the polls on Nov. 8 in its second general election since the end of full military rule in 2011. The country was under military rule under various guises from 1962 to 2010, and in the process has become one of the least developed nations in the world. The Pyu entered the Irrawaddy valley from present-day Yunnan, c. 2nd century BCE, and went on to found city-states throughout the Irrawaddy valley. 300 BC A great civilization exists in Burma. United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Burma on 1 December 2011, to encourage further progress; it was the first visit by a US Secretary of State in more than fifty years. [36], Ne Win retired as president in 1981, but remained in power as Chairman of the BSPP until his sudden unexpected announcement to step down on 23 July 1988. Aung San co-founded the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) with other Thakins in August 1939. United States President Barack Obama visited one year later, becoming the first US president to visit the country. The earliest archaeological evidence suggests that cultures existed in Burma as early as 11,000 BCE. The military finally captured the main Karen base at Manerplaw in spring 1995, but there has still been no final peace settlement. [36], A number of protests followed the coup, and initially the military's response was mild. [citation needed] Between 1900 – 1911 the "Irish Buddhist" U Dhammaloka challenged Christianity and British rule on religious grounds. Burmese defenses against the Chinese invasions held. [36] Peace talks were convened between the RC and various armed insurgent groups in 1963, but without any breakthrough, and during the talks as well as in the aftermath of their failure, hundreds were arrested in Rangoon and elsewhere from both the right and the left of the political spectrum. The Japanese invaded the country in Dec. 1941, and by May 1942, had occupied most of it, cutting off the Burma Road. In 1510, Taungoo also broke away. March, 1942 - A violent conflict in Myaungmya district. The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma; Burmese: မြန်မာ့သမိုင်း) covers the period from the time of first-known human settlements 13,000 years ago to the present day. [2] Archaeological evidence at Samon Valley south of Mandalay suggests rice growing settlements that traded with China between 500 BC and 200 CE. Myanmar History Timeline: follow us at: Home; Introduction; Timeline; More Information of Timeline; 5 thought Pieces; 1930s - Germany, Japan, and Italy began building new empires; September 1, 1939 - WWII began; 1941 - The USA joined them; December 11, 1941 - Japanese army invaded Burma. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. Whether you call it Burma or Myanmar, we can all agree that it’s an incredible country. After the war, Hanthawaddy entered its golden age whereas its rival Ava gradually went into decline. • Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The Pyu had largely assumed the Bamar ethnicity in Upper Burma. At the first meeting, the AFO represented itself to the British as the provisional government of Burma with Thakin Soe as chairman and Aung San as a member of its ruling committee. By the 13th century, the Pyu had assumed Bamar ethnicity. Hmaing lies buried in a mausoleum at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda. Aung San Suu Kyi Timeline Timeline Description: Aung San Suu Kyi (born 1945) is an opposition leader in her home country of Myanmar, and is a chairperson of the country's National League for Democracy. Smaller kingdoms played a precarious game of paying allegiance to more powerful states, sometimes simultaneously. This was the largest-ever Boeing 777 order at the time. Shwebo Palace is a royal palace built in 1753 CE by King Alaungphaya. The NLD, fed up with the interference, walked out in late 1995, and the assembly was finally dismissed in March 1996 without producing a constitution. Emirates Terminal 3 opens at DXB The Emirates-dedicated Terminal 3 saw 500,000 passengers depart from the facility within its first month of operation. Three years after the mass exodus of Rohingya people from Anyathians and Shan state tribe are artists, hunters, and gatherers Anyathians, a pre-historic tribe were among the first to settle in what is today Myanmar, and used wood and stone tools. After the failure of the National Convention to create a new constitution, tensions between the government and the NLD mounted, resulting in two major crackdowns on the NLD in 1996 and 1997. 1852 - Britain annexes lower Burma, including Rangoon, following the second Anglo-Burmese war. From the 1420s to the 1530s, Hanthawaddy was the most powerful and prosperous kingdom of all post-Pagan kingdoms. Ten Things to Do in Yangon This Week. The Sassanids manage to fight against the newly organized Muslims and pushes … Gen. Khin Nyunt, the SLORC Secretary 1, and chief of Military Intelligence Service (MIS), claimed that the uprising had been orchestrated by the Communist Party of Burma through its underground organisation. Burmese Timeline Mar 5, 1824. 1531 - Toungoo dynasty reunites country as Burma. A timeline of Myanmar. [36] Ne Win also secretly held peace talks later in 1980 with the KIO and the CPB, again ending in a deadlock as before. The Anyathian, Burma's Stone Age, existed at a time thought to parallel the lower and middle Paleolithic in Europe. Arakan was the only post-Pagan kingdom not to be annexed by the Taungoo Dynasty. The Japanese occupation of Burma lasted for around three years during World War II. Traditional Burmese society was drastically altered by the demise of the monarchy and the separation of religion and state. Burma came under increasing international pressure to convene the elected assembly, particularly after Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, and also faced economic sanctions. Tue 27 May 2008 08.15 EDT First published on Tue 27 May 2008 08.15 EDT. This was the largest-ever Boeing 777 order at the time. ... History of Myanmar Timeline created by aatay. Timeline: Key events in recent Myanmar history No vote: Aung San Suu Kyi in Yangon in November (CNN) -- March 1962: Then-Burma comes under military rule by Ne Win after a bloodless coup. Timeline: Burma Chronology of some of the key events in Burmese history since independence Matthew Weaver and Peter Walker. The military placed Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest again in September 2000 until May 2002, when her travel restrictions outside of Rangoon were also lifted. [36] In December 1974, the biggest anti-government demonstrations to date broke out over the funeral of former UN Secretary-General U Thant. The Ayutthaya Kingdom used the Konbaung preoccupation with the Qing to recover their lost territories by 1770, and in addition, went on to capture much of Lan Na by 1776, ending over two centuries of Burmese suzerainty over the region. The popularity of the AFPFL, now dominated by Aung San and the Socialists, was eventually confirmed when it won an overwhelming victory in the April 1947 constituent assembly elections. were most important negotiators and leaders of the historical pinlon (panglong) Conference negotiated with Burma national top leader General Aung San and other top leaders in 1947. [3] During the Iron Age, archaeological evidence also out of Samon Valley reveal changes in infant burial practices that were greatly influenced by India. 1974 Lan Na (Chiang Mai) revolts, seeks and receives Siamese help. [13][16], By the early 12th century, Pagan had emerged as a major power alongside the Khmer Empire in Southeast Asia, recognised by Song China and the Chola dynasty of India. Special Envoy for Myanmar Christine Schraner Burgener, High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi, and Kanni Wignaraja, UNDP Assistant Administrator and Director of the Regional Bureau for Asia and the Pacific briefed on a range of issues including the need to de-escalate the conflict, … The Burmese language, once an alien tongue, was now the lingua franca of the kingdom. The Anglo-Burmese wars (1824–85) eventually led to British colonial rule. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 300 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi, was founded around the port of … The Siamese also moved their authority up the Tanintharyi coast by 1752. Major Pyu city-states (Pagan not contemporary). The wealth of the kingdom was devoted to building over 10,000 Buddhist temples in the Pagan capital zone between 11th and 13th centuries (of which 3000 remain to the present day). Hsinbyushin raises the Shwedagon Pagoda to its present height, Laotian states (Luang Prabang and Vientiane) stop paying tribute, switch sides to Siam, Resumes diplomatic relationship with China, Ceylonese monks seek ordination at Amarapura, Burmese put down rebellions in Assam and Manipur, Burmese put down another rebellion in Assam, and make it a Burmese province, British expand Rangoon (modern-day downtown Yangon), British "pacification" of Burma (to 1896), Burma is proclaimed a British colony. By 1597, the kingdom had lost all its possessions, including Taungoo, the ancestral home of the dynasty. 1992. Burmese Timeline Mar 5, 1824. Than Shwe also finally allowed a National Convention to meet in January 1993, but insisted that the assembly preserve a major role for the military in any future government, and suspended the convention from time to time. The Mongols, who had conquered Yunnan, the former homeland of the Bamar, in 1253, began their invasion in 1277 in response to an embassy crisis, and in 1287 sacked Pagan, ending the Pagan Kingdom's 250-year rule of the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery when the Pagan king of that time abandoned his palace on the news of the Mongol march. Bodawpaya's successor King Bagyidaw was left to put down British instigated rebellions in Manipur in 1819 and Assam in 1821–1822. Multi-Party General Elections held in Myanmar. Cross-border raids by rebels from the British protected territories and counter-cross-border raids by the Burmese led to the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26). [20] When the Confederation of Shan States conquered Ava in 1527, many refugees fled southeast to Taungoo, the only kingdom in peace, and one surrounded by larger hostile kingdoms. By the mid 9th century, the Mon had founded at least two small kingdoms (or large city-states) centred around Bago and Thaton. The two sides exchange views in a friendly and cordial atmosphere on border-related issues focusing on China’s support for the peace process of Myanmar, promoting rule of law, peace and stability along Myanmar-China border, stabilization of the situation in northern Myanmar, confidence-building measures and development of border areas to promote the interests of the populations in those areas. Its kings regularly faced rebellions in its vassal regions but were able to put them down until the 1480s. Mohnyin, in particular, constantly raided Ava's territory in the early 16th century. This civilization in Burma was also known to the Chinese. Political Timeline . The military would not let the assembly convene, and continued to hold the two leaders of the NLD, Tin Oo and Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Aung San, under the house arrest imposed on them the previous year. This 2016 Economist infographic provides an overview of Myanmar’s history, population, government, and economy. Year 2 of the Burmese calendar began on 21 March 640 per (Eade 1989: 39). The Botataung, Kyemon and Rangoon Daily newspapers were also closed down.[36]. A new generation of Burmese leaders arose in the early 20th century from amongst the educated classes that were permitted to go to London to study law. Myanmar, also called Burma, country, located in the western portion of mainland Southeast Asia. The Qing kept a heavy military line-up in the border areas for about one decade in an attempt to wage another war while imposing a ban on inter-border trade for two decades.[25]. [13] Over the next two hundred years, the small principality gradually grew to include its immediate surrounding areas— to about 200 miles north to south and 80 miles from east to west by Anawrahta's accession in 1044. However, internal political turmoil, crumbling economy and ethnic strife continue to make the transition to democracy a painful one. 849 Pagan is founded. [5] The Pyu were the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant. The core of the kingdom was located in the area that is now called “Old Bagan”. [36], Under Japanese occupation, 170,000 to 250,000 civilians died. The Conflict in Myanmar is a series of primarily ethnic conflicts within Myanmar that began shortly after the country, then known as Burma, became independent from the United Kingdom in 1948. However, other sources reveal more dramatic figures. The British ruled Myanmar (then Burma) for over a century, beginning with a series of wars in 1824. In Mandalay, the police shot into a crowd of protesters led by Buddhist monks killing 17 people. By fall, forced repatriation begins, despite protests by the international community. 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