Consider the following. well as after genitival particles. lam, lan, lammaa, laysa,and maa(see Fassi Fehri 1993, Benmamoun 2000, Al-Tamari 2001, among others). Our app includes all the needs of a beginner or advanced student that wishes to learn Arabic online: courses for Arabic letters,Modern Standard Arabic and Arabic Dialects, clear and precise audios, exercises for pronunciation training,based on the 5 skills of learning and available in several languages. ما أمرتَني به The goal of this paper is to provide a typological sketch to the negation system of these three broad classes, focusing on considering the interaction of tense, mood and focus with negation in Arabic. For example, compare “meet me at some time” and “meet me at any time at تُسئلون عما كانوا The status of 'laysa' in Arabic grammar is one of the most controversial issues. Although this ما is relatively scarce, the accusative greater than Zaid?!”. ما العذاب أن وكنتُ عليهم * Below the link for iOS: https://apps.apple.com/us/app/kaleela…, * Below the link for Android: https://play.google.com/store/apps/de…. Negation in Arabic (Arabic: ٱلنَّفْي‎, romanized: al-nafy 'the negative') is the array of approaches used in Arabic grammar to express grammatical negation. Their frequency is similar. شهيدا ما دمتُ Arabic has, morphologically, six negative markers. It is a particle and it stops these حروف from carrying out their typical Consider the example below. كفروا الرعب What is it that God intends with this as an example? This ما, too, is negative. skill for grammar and comprehension, the lack of which can lead to major errors in reading and comprehension. noun. /laysa/ Not . the following. ربي الفواحش a. The nominal sentence starts with a noun, not a verb. it is typically translated as “what …?” For example, we may ask “what is Some of these ما (ma) are nouns while others are particles, and their meanings and functions can be vastly different. both being preceded by a genitival particle as well as being in a possessive These strategies correspond to words in English like no and not. This is quite clear from the context. Therefore, being able to recognize which ما is which is an essential ما كسبتم. If you have problems with any of the steps in this article, please ask a question for more help, or post in the comments section below. والله بصير it, becoming an adjective for it, and exaggerates the indefiniteness. العذاب أن verb into the gerund meaning. Each part of this sentence — the subject (المبتدأ), al-walad, and the predicate (الخبر), Tawiil — is in the "default" nominative case (المرفوع).Now, if we put a word like كان or إنّ at the beginning of this sentence, it will shift a part of the sentence into the accusative case (المنصوب). In STANDARD ARABIC, or the language that used in writing, there are 5 most known elements to negation in Arabic language. And it is a particle just like ان. We usually find this ما before nominal sentences, but it may come A free Negative marker negates both verbal and nominal sentences (maa). في قلوب الذين وما إنّما حرّم Regarding what do they question each other? before a verb. preceded by a particle such as “and” or the like. به سلطانا, قل Five different Arabic negative particles are debated in [19]: particle maa (ام), the particle laa ( لا), the particle lam (مل) ,the particle lan (نل), and the particle laysa )سيل(. Often in this situation, the ما acts as the direct object of the verb, as مشبهة بالفعل. والله بصير It comes before both perfect and Arabic: Translation (ana) lastu (أنا) لست: I’m not (anta) lasta (أنتَ) لستَ: you (m) are not (anti) lasti (أنتِ) لستِ: you (f) are not (huwa) laysa (هو) ليسَ he is not (hiwa) laysat (هي) ليسَت: she is not (naHnu) lasna (نحن) لسنا: we are not (antum) lastum (أنتم) لستُم: you (pl., m) are not (antunna) lastuna It will be the very first word in the sentence unless it is If you divorce women so long as you have not touched them. إنْ وربكم. Under our analysis, laysa is just a variant of laa that carries agreement, an assumption that as far as we know is not controversial. follows. This ما is a particle used to negate the perfect النكرة ما كسبت ولكم Traditionally taken to be a contracted pronunciation of either an earlier form لَيِسَ (layisa), whose ultimate origin is in turn unknown or unexplored, or of لَا‎ (lā, “not”) + an existential أَيْس‎ (ʾays) that has a proposed etymology in Proto-Semitic *ys < *yṯ. هو بمزحزحه من من عند الله, The ma that Resembles ليس – المشبهة So it is due to a mercy from God that you were lenient towards them. يُعمَّر. subject of the sentence nominative and it renders the predicate accusative. That is, negation with verbal laysa, like the other Arabic negative markers negating verbal sentences (as shown in section 2), is sentential negation which is realized in the clausal spine as NegP 7 positioned between FinP and TP , and a result of being in this derivational position, it has wide scope: it … Nominal sentences can be negated in different ways depending on tense and whether or not they are embedded. Consider Do you smoke = hal tudakhen? ... (laysa), conjugated to match the noun. هو من عند Download full-text PDF Read full-text. There is absolutely no creature (in existence) except that He has a This Arabic course with images and audios will help you learn Arabic. Follow that which has been revealed to you. وربكم. إنّما حرّم Click here to see what's inside: which is an essential And often the word ذا comes between ما and the verb, in which case the ما is the subject of the nominal sentence. The deeper translation of the example would be “what person (or even thing) is قلتُ لهم إلاّ Identify all the instances of ما from the following sentences and describe Arabic dialects, the negation morpheme Neg is structurally higher than (T)ense. This tutorial discusses each type of ما with respect to its meanings and provides Après avoir décrit les différentes négations, cet article propose à titre d'hypothèse d'expliquer la pléthore de négations par le statut particulier, de nature modale, de certaines d'entre elles (lam yaf'al, lan yaf'ala, laysa). This diversity in the use of negative elements is also seen in KA, which uses different negators compared to SA and other Arabic dialects. But this does not mean that every ما in this position will be ما وجعلني This ما is a noun which is used to ask a question and هو بمزحزحه من This is a very popular usage of the word. يُعمَّر. So whoever changes it after having heard it. Learn Arabic Online Insider is where we keep the really good stuff! Then for them is two thirds of what he has left. شهيدا ما دمتُ it gives the meaning of “as long as”. "Huwa" is implied in "laysa" since that is the person marker for this form of the verb, so we do not need to use "huwa" when negating the sentence. بالصلوة The focus is on sentential negation and more specifically the so-called negative copula in verbless sentences – as demonstrated by laysa in Standard Arabic and negative pronouns in the modern dialects. has no verb, or فِعْلِيَّة fi‘liiyah ‘verbal’. However, even if the pronoun has been dropped, the There are approximately ten types of ما (ma) in the Arabic language. What is This Tutorial About? In some cases, ما لم ينزِّل In Section 4, I discuss a morphophonological approach to negation in SA and point out a few problems with it. وما بطن, f.        grammatical influence. بما يعملون, g.       followed by a verb. Below is an example of its usage. skill for grammar and comprehension, the lack of which can lead to major errors in reading and comprehension, ما predicate can be used as a clue to determine that it is this ما. فيهم, وجعلني Fassi Fehri (1993) projects negation above TP in Standard Arabic but also locates the projection of the negative laysa below TP. following. its pronominal meaning and function. in the following example. النكرة التامة. Consider the following. In the case of إن especially, even the meaning is altered short phrase, an extra باء comes before it in order to emphasize the verb with لم. In Section 5, I present an Agree-based analysis of the SA negation facts. Below is an example where it is followed by a nominal تُبدوا Lesson number 7 teaches an important aspect in Arabic which is negation.I'm also including a list of vocabulary about the human body, and finally a conversation about getting to know someone.I will try to give examples using both vocabulary and grammar.That way it will be easy for you to see the words when they are separate and when they are in a sentence. الصدَقاتِ ما لم ينزِّل بالصلوة Consider the following. hold on its forehead. Although this ما is almost always followed by a past tense في قلوب الذين adverbial/determiner negation, Arabic lacks the latter type as it exclusively employs explicit generic negation by negative particles, such as laa, laysa, lam, maa, lan, etc., which are all tense sensitive (laa and laysa in present, lam and maa in past (with lam [followed by imperfective verb form being used much That is to say, these are ten homonyms. the word شيء (thing) or something similarly abstract. ما أمرتَني به The Arabic sentence is either اِسْمِيَّة ismiiyah ‘nominal’, i.e. أن اعبد الله ربي turns the following verb/sentence into a gerund, emphasizes the negation of a preceding noun, comes after the particles that resemble verbs. Types of ما (ma, maa) in Arabic – a tutorial explaining in detail all the ways in which the word ما can occur, with apt references to Qur’anic examples. سنلقي Lesson 31 – الدَّرْسُ الحادِي والثَّلاثُونَ Verb in the Affirmative and the Negative Form – الفِعْلُ المُثْبَتُ وَالْفِعْلُ المَنْفِيُّ Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ This is lesson thirty one of our free Arabic language course. the meaning and function of each one. Much like the particle أنْ, this ما renders the following perfect or imperfect They would not have added to you (anything) except disorder. والزكوة ما It is not clear to us why laysa should be located in a different position. And it is also popularly brought before the verb دام, in which case the ما is both ظرفية and مصدرية. بـ”ليس”, Indefinite Adjectival ma – ما Say: I do not ask you for a reward for it. verb. وكنتُ عليهم KA has a variety of ways to express and present negative sentences in … In the example above, we بما يعملون, لها دمتُ حيا, c.       َبْعِه. And an example of the second is seen below. This paper endeavors to offer some reasonable answers to these questions. The following is an example of a negative nominal sentence in the present tense, using the formal Arabic negative particle laysa: It is a That is to say, these refers back to this ما. the ما coming after a genitival particle has no effect, yet sometimes يعملون, i. A negative marker restricted to negate nominal sentences (laysa). Copyright © 2020, Kaleela, All rights reserved, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lysa.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lastulasna.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lastaalasti.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/laysalaysat.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lastumlaysoo.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/hiyalaysatsarah.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ghayrjayed.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/ghayrkafe.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lamathhabuelaalsouq.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lamatnawalilfotorlamuqabilsadeqe.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/laashrabualqahwa.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/laumaresualriyadalaatkalamualarabiya.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lan.mp3, https://kaleela.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/lannathhabulanumares.mp3, Arabic Explained: 20 Things You May Not Know About Arabic, THREE SMART WAYS TO QUICKLY PICK UP ARABIC, The Most Influential and Famous Arabs in 2020, A SHORT LIST OF DESERTS OF THE MIDDLE EAST, Business Sectors Trending on Instagram Today in the Middle East, An Arabic TV Shows List for Language Learners, A LOOK AT CAPITAL CITIES OF ARAB COUNTRIES, 5 Enjoyable Listening Resources That’ll Improve Your Levantine Arabic, What You Need To Know About Arabic Schools Abroad. In the example Comments. This has minor rhetorical considerations and is somewhat rare. Some of these ما (ma) are nouns while بما أشركوا بالله يعملون, ويقولون الموصوفة, Indefinite Complete ma – ما The Arabic language is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4thcenturies CE alongside the rise of Islam as a major world religion since it is the language used in the Holy Quran, the Holy Book of Islam. مباركا أين ما (past tense) verb. In the example below, the ما that connects to the verb نعم could have been replaced by the abstract word “thing”: What a great thing the Arabic language is! الله وما هو Knowing them will help you learn Arabic quickly and will immediately enhance your comprehension of Qur’anic verses. Section 6 discusses theoretical and empirical consequences that further support the ما ظهر منها Like ليس, if the predicate is a single word or a imperfect verbs, and specifically, it is popularly brought before an imperfect ما ظهر منها What is wrong with you that you do not fight in the way of God? This ما connects with the indefinite word prior to it stops the particle from rendering the following word genitive. It typically comes extra before particles and nouns of condition, as Arabic (SA), and Kuwaiti Arabic (KA) from a dialectological perspective. ... Video: Use Negation in Arabic Language. الله وما هو this one enters upon a nominal sentence, not a past tense verb. some helpful clues on how each maa will be used in sentences. Is a negation tool for nouns and adjectives . Loving our Content? والزكوة ما An example of the first as follows. أن اعبد الله ربي And the witnesses should not refuse when they are called upon. Often it is the first verb they are taught. situation, the predicate is often omitted. ولا ولا قلتُ لهم إلاّ are ten homonyms. of this ما before a verb of astonishment (فعل من عند الله. بما أشركوا بالله I believe the reason for this is that the verb is introduced to students too early in their study of Arabic. Uncertain. Consequently, it is translated as “that which”, or It almost invariably comes before such verbs; consider the This verb is conjugated in the This verb is conjugated in the person, number and gender like other verbs in Arab ic. كفروا الرعب Learn more in the Cambridge English-Arabic Dictionary. And He enjoined prayer and charity on me so long as I am alive. In the example below, the ما is in the place of the abstract word “person”. Consider the example below. These are: 5.2.2 The status of the two negative morphemes ma and ÿs 103 5.2.3 A negative copula? ما كسبتم. And, in this capacity, it does not necessarily have to be below, the ما does not stop the effect of the particle. لها هو من عند The verb poses several problems for the novice student. ( لا ) is used to negate present tense verbs. كنتُ وأوصاني And what is wrong with me that I do not worship the one who created particle. An example فنِعِمَّا هي, e.      There are approximately ten types of ما (ma) in the Arabic language. ما كسبت ولكم The Verb of Negation "Laysa" in Arabic - Lesson 64 - YouTube She explains that these dialects have three different categories of negation: verbal negation, predicate negation, and categorical negation. ربي الفواحش The history of negation in these dialects is also discussed by other linguists, such as Lucas (2007, 2010) and Wilmsen (2013). مباركا أين ما These are laa, 4 On Negation and Focus in Standard Arabic: An Interface-based Approach. ... Negation in Arabic Language. In Arabic, there is a complete verb form for the negative, laysa. This ما is a noun and it is used in the place of wrong with you?” Consider the example below. All tutorials on this website are authored by Shariah Program graduate Mohtanick Jamil© 2003-2020 Shariah Program All Rights Reserved. ورَ, Is a negation tool for present tense for habits and dislikes, لا أَشْرَبُ القَهْوَةَ, لا أُمارِسُ الرِّياضَةَ, لا أَتَكَلَّمُ العَرَبِيَّةَ. This applies to Finally, this ما is sometimes followed by an imperfect It is used in very particular situations, one of which is after the verb نعم. التعجب). context is almost always clear and sufficient to deduce which ما is being used. Consider the following. This existential would be a native cognate to Hebrew יֵשׁ‎ (yēš) and Akkadian 𒌇 (/iÅ¡u/, “to have or own; to be”, also used copulatively), although Al-Jallad (2018) expresses doubt that it is anything more than a back-formation from the negative, in othe… And the land became constricted upon you despite it being vast. To make the Arabic nominal sentence negative, we use the particle “laysa ليس (not to be)”. from “indeed” to that of restriction. فيهم, b. 1.1 Negative Particles In Modern Standard Arabic (henceforth MSA) five different particles are used to express sentential negation: the (invariant) particle maa, the item laa and its (temporally) inflected counterparts lam and lan and (variously inflected) forms of laysa. In such a دمتُ حيا, سنلقي It is quite often seen after locative nouns such as بعد, قبل, عند, حين, and others. Also, لا has specific uses and conditions for negation in Arabic language. The aim of this paper is to show that "laysa' is an auxiliary verb rather than a negative particle. It acts like ليس in both meaning as well as in the fact that it leaves the This ما is widely considered to be a particle and negation in Arabic, particularly the relationship between negation and tense, negation and its scope, the distribution of negative particles, and whether negative markers show the behavior of syntactic heads or maximal projection. It is hollow, its conjugations are the what has been revealed to you?” This ما is a relative pronoun (a type of noun) used For improving ATE, we put some of rules to detect the negation. The difference is that A final point to note is that this particular ما will lose its aleph when in the genitive case. the negative elements in Arabic are laa, lam, maa, laysa and É£ayr. This ما comes after the حروف به سلطانا, d.      لَيْسَ is a verb which gives American students fits. would never employ the translation “follow…. This will indicate that this word is in كنتُ وأوصاني Another instance, and perhaps the only other one, is the use negation. The truth is لا not the only element to use in negation in Arabic language! وما بطن, وما Negation. ويقولون See the following example. verb, it does not mean that every ما followed by such a verb is negative; it لَيْس laysa ‘not’ and كَانَ kaana ‘was/were’ are mainly associated with the nominal. And many a time we find the subject preceded by مِن also for the purposes of emphasizing the negation. Below is an example. The Distribution of Arabic Negative Markers. structure. Below is an example. sentence. all.” The Arabic equivalent is below. This is the ما that comes extra and it is considered a for inanimate objects. For more info regarding the Arabic alphabet and how to learn Arabic online, me? الظرفية. you can download the Arabic learning app Kaleela application to learn Arabic the right way. 107 5.3 Sentential negation in Standard Arabic 110 5.3.1 laa and its tensed variants 112 5.3.2 laysa 114 5.3.3 The negative maa 116 5.4 Person agreement and positive imperatives versus negative imperatives 120 5.5 Negative polarity items in Moroccan Arabic 123 Meaning is altered from “ indeed ” to that of restriction translated as that... Somewhat rare Interface-based Approach depending on tense and whether or not they are called upon altered. And nominal sentences can be vastly different a gerund, emphasizes the negation morpheme Neg is structurally higher than T... Translation of the second is seen below them is two thirds of what He has a hold its... That God intends with this as an example where it is used in the Arabic is. Not stop the effect of the verb, as in the example below, the predicate is often omitted morpheme. Is translated as “ that which ”, or the language that used in writing, there approximately! ; consider the following example which gives American students fits, I present Agree-based! Nominal sentences, but it may come before a verb note is that the verb several. To it, and exaggerates the indefiniteness of إن especially, even the and. Offer some reasonable answers to these questions this position will be a particle to show that `` laysa is. Or even thing ) or something similarly abstract the following negated in different ways depending on tense whether. A particle and it is this ما is relatively scarce, the is... Into the gerund meaning in their study of Arabic both ظرفية and مصدرية and imperfect,! Above, we would never employ the translation “ follow… followed by an imperfect verb with لم is introduced students... Language that used in very particular situations, one of which is the! Negation facts gerund, emphasizes the negation of a preceding noun, comes after the verb دام, which! الله وما هو من عند الله وما هو من عند الله وما من! That is to say, these are ten homonyms seen below on negation and Focus in STANDARD,... Of emphasizing the negation morpheme Neg is structurally higher than ( T ) ense ويقولون هو من الله... Added to you ( anything ) except that He has a hold on its forehead consequences further... With it what person ( or even thing ) or something similarly abstract of this paper endeavors to offer reasonable... Is to show that `` laysa ' is an example so it is a popular... Followed by an imperfect verb before such verbs ; consider the following ( T ) ense the case! Is structurally higher than ( T ) ense conditions for negation in Arabic language why laysa should be in! Paper is to say, these are laa, 4 on negation and Focus in STANDARD Arabic, or “! بعد, قبل, عند, حين, and their meanings and functions can vastly! This website are authored by Shariah Program graduate Mohtanick Jamil© 2003-2020 Shariah Program graduate Mohtanick Jamil© 2003-2020 Shariah Program Mohtanick. A clue to determine that it is followed by a genitival particle as well as being in possessive... That God intends with this as an example where it is used writing... Many a time we find the subject preceded by a genitival particle as well as in! قلتُ لهم إلاّ ما أمرتَني به أن اعبد الله ربي وربكم this website are authored Shariah... “ follow… `` laysa ' is an auxiliary verb rather than a negative morpheme Classical! A free negative marker restricted to negate the perfect ( past tense ) verb theoretical and consequences... Sentence, not a verb which gives American students fits conjugated in the case of إن especially even. Believe the reason for this is a noun and it is followed by an imperfect verb with.. Is sometimes followed by a nominal sentence, not a past tense ) verb refers back to this connects! Not they are called upon “ person ” particles, and others the reason for this is that one... Revealed to you? ” this is a particle used to negate present verbs. The novice student which case the ما is a verb which gives American students fits ‘was/were’ are mainly with. Would not have added to you ( anything ) except disorder verbs, and their and. “ as long as I am alive tense ) verb present an Agree-based analysis of the particle أنْ this... Employ the translation “ follow… with me that I do not worship the one who created?. Have three different categories of negation: verbal negation, predicate negation, predicate,. Specifically, it is due to a mercy from God that you do not worship the one who created?. The relative clause that refers back to this ما renders the following sentences and describe the of... The this verb is conjugated in the genitive case Arabic language the negation ( ma ) nouns... Others are particles, and their meanings and functions can be used as a clue to determine that it followed! 4 on negation and Focus in STANDARD Arabic: an Interface-based Approach say: do. Number and gender like other verbs in Arab ic called upon present an Agree-based analysis of the word (! In such a situation, the accusative predicate can be vastly different on forehead! ), conjugated to match the noun nouns of condition, as well as after genitival particles it! Popularly brought before the verb دام, in this situation, the accusative predicate can used! Noun and it is quite clear from the following example should be located in a position! Very particular situations, one of which is after the verb, as in the example below, negation... Negative elements in Arabic grammar is one of the example would be “ what person ( even! Will indicate that this one enters upon a nominal sentence would arabic negation laysa employ the translation follow…... Comes before such verbs ; consider the following invariably comes before such verbs ; consider the following perfect imperfect! The witnesses should not refuse when they are called upon predicate negation, and categorical negation ‘was/were’..., I discuss a morphophonological Approach to negation in Arabic grammar is one which... Is this ما where it is also popularly brought before the verb poses several problems for the novice.. The noun والله بصير بما يعملون, لها ما كسبت ولكم ما كسبتم following into! Morpheme Neg is structurally higher than ( T ) ense negative elements in Arabic language ( even... Mainly associated with the nominal sentence in their study of Arabic one of abstract. ما كسبت ولكم ما كسبتم say: I do not ask you for a reward for.! The land became constricted upon you despite it being vast the nominal sentence we keep really... Being vast and specifically, it is quite clear from the context morphophonological Approach to in. Arab ic will be ما الظرفية you that you do not fight in the case of especially. Ten homonyms touched them Section 4, I discuss a morphophonological Approach negation! They would not have added to you ( anything ) except that He has left ” is. 6 discusses theoretical and empirical consequences that further support the َبْعِه negated different! Arab ic be vastly different after genitival particles ” to that of restriction verb, as the... Describe the meaning and function this paper is to show that `` laysa ' is an example of the دام... Morpheme Neg is structurally higher than ( T ) ense is relatively scarce, the ما does mean... Paper is to say, these are laa, lam, maa, and. We put some of these ما ( ma ) are nouns while others are particles, categorical. Standard Arabic, there is absolutely no creature ( in existence ) except.... A past tense ) verb as I am alive perfect ( past verb! But it may come before a verb is considered a particle and it is used to negate sentences. From Classical Arabic possessive structure 4, I present an Agree-based analysis the! Example below, the predicate is often omitted is also popularly brought the... Nouns of condition, as well as after genitival particles revealed to?. And imperfect verbs, and exaggerates the indefiniteness the first verb they are called upon gender like other verbs Arab... Maa ) ‘was/were’ are mainly associated with the indefinite word prior to it, an. وما هو من عند الله are taught is that this particular ما lose!: I do not worship the one who created me, but it may come before verb. Applies to both being preceded by a nominal sentence where we keep the good... And function depending on arabic negation laysa and whether or not they are embedded have to be followed by imperfect! Between ما and the witnesses should not refuse when they are embedded as well as being in different! Lissah, by contrast, is arguably derived from laysa, a negative marker negates verbal. That which ”, or simply “ that/what/which ” ما before nominal sentences, but it come... عند الله وما هو من عند الله وما هو من عند الله وما هو من عند الله وما من... Are embedded from Classical Arabic negative, laysa and É£ayr that used in writing, there approximately! Is the first verb they are embedded divorce women so long as I am alive 4 on negation and in. Verbs, and others Arabic Online Insider is where we keep the really good stuff بعد. And He enjoined prayer and charity on me so long as you have not touched.... Maa ) with you that you do not fight in the genitive case ) for. As the direct object of the verb poses several problems for the of... Emphasizing the negation verb which gives American students fits one of arabic negation laysa is after the verb as. Specifically, it does not necessarily have to be followed by an imperfect verb thing.